The Estonian health insurance system is based on solidarity – all insured people have the same rights. To receive health insurance from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), taxes must be paid in Estonia, and an Estonian ID number is needed. You get an ID number together with a temporary residence permit or residence permit for employment or as an EU- citizen when you register your right of residence. Your employer will send the information about your employment to the EHIF.
If you are working in Estonia for a short period and do not have a residence permit or have not registered your right of residence, you can receive an ID number by contacting the Ministry of Interior Population facts department and filling in an application form or filling in the application form in an Estonian foreign representation. You will then receive notification of your ID number by post. You will have to present your ID number to your employer. Your employer will then forward all the necessary information to the EHIF, the Tax and Customs Board and the Social Insurance Board, so that you will have health insurance and other rights resulting from paid taxes. If you have not received an Estonian ID-number, you should get a private health insurance to have full coverage.
Some people have the same rights as taxpayers, such as children and pregnant women whose pregnancy has been established by a physician.
There is no refund system in Estonia. Where the health service provider has a contract with the Estonian Health Insurance Fund, all costs are directly reimbursed to it by the Fund. The patient shall pay only the amount of own contribution.
The EHIF pays for visits to doctors and hospital treatment, and covers part of the cost of some medicines. The EHIF covers the costs of medical treatment, apart from the own contribution amount for the fee for visiting medical specialists (up to 5 EUR) and the hospital in-patient fee (up to 2.5 EUR per day). First aid in the event of emergencies is free of charge for everybody.
The EHIF pays for:
- visits to the doctor;
- diagnostic examinations;
- treatment procedures;
- preventive procedures;
- technical aids put in place during or after the surgery.
The EHIF pays sickness benefits on the basis of a certificate of incapacity for work, which you receive from your doctor and must then present to your employer. The sickness benefit is 70% of the average income per calendar day and is paid by the employer from the fourth day of illness. Starting from the ninth day of illness, the sickness benefit will be paid by the EHIF. Your employer calculates the benefit according to your salary in the earlier 6 months. EHIF calculates sickness benefits on the basis of your income in the previous calendar year.
A care allowance in the amount of 80% of average income is paid for nursing a child under the age of 12 from the first day of the nursing leave.
If the family members of an EU citizen stay in their home country, their health insurance can be covered by the EHIF after the E109 form has been issued by the EHIF and registered in the country of residence of the family members.
EU citizens are also insured as long as their European Health Insurance Card is valid on the basis of earlier work or other insurance conditions in their home country. In the event of short-term work, you should check the term of validity of your health insurance and your European health insurance card. If your European health insurance card is valid, you will be granted necessary health care while staying in Estonia. If you are not insured in your home country and you are staying in Estonia for a short time without a residence permit, you should get private health insurance in your home country for the duration of your stay in Estonia.
An employee who is posted for a short term from another EU member state to Estonia can receive necessary health care by presenting his/her European health insurance card. In case you are posted to Estonia from another EU member country for a longer-term assignment (more than 1 year), you are entitled to get health care in Estonia on the same terms as local insured persons. You should receive from your employer the E106 form, which you should bring with you to Estonia. Go to the Estonian Health Insurance Fund with 2 copies of the E106 form and your residence permit or Estonian ID card and fill in an application to be registered in Estonia as a posted worker.
Citizens of third countries coming to Estonia for a short period should obtain private health insurance in their home country or in Estonia. Having valid health insurance is one of the visa requirements. Citizens of third countries staying here on the basis of a residence permit or a residence permit for employment and paying their taxes here have health insurance in Estonia.
It is possible to get a private health insurance from Estonian insurance companies, for example ERGO.
- Estonian Health Insurance Fund. General Outline
- Estonian Health Insurance Fund. Insured persons
- Estonian Health Insurance Fund. Voluntary registration
- Estonian Health Insurance Fund. For EU members
You can check if you are registered with the Estonian Health Insurance Fund through the state portal by logging in with your ID Card. In Estonian: (Kindlustatud = insured; jah = yes; ei =no).