St. John’s Eve and Christmas Eve (24 Dec) are the most important holidays in Estonia. Christmas, celebrated after the winter solstice, falls in the darkest period of the year and is primarily a family-centred holiday. Both the old and the young stand by a decorated, candle-lit Christmas tree waiting for Father Christmas to deliver presents. Afterwards, they all sit down to a festive dinner, which usually consists of roast pork, black pudding with cowberry jam, and sauerkraut with roast potatoes.

On the evening of 23 June, Estonian cities become half empty. Everybody who can do so travels into the country in order to celebrate one of Estonia’s most significant holidays- St. John’s Eve. On that night darkness lasts for only a few hours. Hundreds of bonfires are lit all over Estonia, people sing and dance around them, and when the flames have died down a bit, those who are brave enough leap through them to shake off the year’s evils. St. John’s (Midsummer’s) Day marks the longest days and the shortest nights of the year, and the customs relating to it go back to pre-Christian pagan times.

Other ancient customs, which relate to the time of year, are still practised. On Shrove Tuesday, in February, adults seize the chance to go sledging together with their children, on the pretext of the old custom. On St. Martin’s Eve (9 Nov.) and St. Catherine’s Day (25 Nov.), children in costumes go from house to house, earning sweets with their singing and dancing.

In addition to these festivities, Estonians also have several national holidays. The most important falls on 24 February, when people celebrate the declaration of independence of 1918. Regardless of the weather, which in February may vary between mild thaw and fierce frost, a military parade takes place in the morning. In the evening, the majority of Estonians gather in front of their television sets to watch the President’s reception – if they are not invited to attend themselves, that is.

Several Christian holidays receive much less attention and importance in Estonia than in many other European countries. Easter is celebrated by many only with colouring eggs and only Good Friday and Easter Sunday are days off. Estonian school holidays do not depend on the time of Easter.

Estonica. Traditional folk culture. Annual circle Christmas customs in Estonia

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